Enzymes - Laccase

Laccases are copper-containing oxidase enzymes that are widely distributed among plants, fungi, and microorganisms. The copper is bound in several sites; Type 1, Type 2, and/or Type 3. The ensemble of types 2 and 3 copper is called a trinuclear cluster. Laccases act on phenols and similar molecules, performing a one-electron oxidations, which remain poorly defined. It is proposed that laccases play a role in the formation of lignin by promoting the oxidative coupling of lignols, a family of naturally occurring phenols.[1] Laccases can be polymeric, and the enzymatically active form can be a dimer or trimer.

Laccases have been examined as the cathode in enzymatic biofuel cells. They can be paired with an electron mediator to facilitate electron transfer to a solid electrode wire. Laccases are some of the few oxidoreductases commercialized as industrial catalysts. The enzymes can be used for textile dyeing/finishing, wine cork making, teeth whitening, and many other industrial, environmental, diagnostic, and synthetic uses . Laccases can be used in bioremediation. Protein ligand docking can be used to predict the putative pollutants that can be degraded by laccase.